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Supplementary Material for: Major Adverse Renal and Cardiovascular Events following Intra-Arterial Contrast Media Administration in Hospitalized Patients with Comorbid Conditions

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posted on 12.08.2021, 12:15 by McCullough P., Ng C.S., Ryan M., Baker E.R., Mehta R.
Introduction: Several clinical studies and meta-analyses have demonstrated lower incidence of adverse renal and cardiovascular outcomes associated with the use of iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM) than low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) in patients with variable risk profiles undergoing intra-arterial interventional procedures. However, the association of contrast-type and major adverse renal and cardiovascular events (MARCE) has not been studied via comprehensive and robust real-world data analyses in patients with comorbid conditions considered at risk for post-procedural acute kidney injury (AKI). The objective of this study was therefore to retrospectively assess the MARCE rates comparing IOCM with LOCM in at-risk patients receiving iodinated intra-arterial contrast media using a real-world inpatient data source. Methods: Patients who underwent a diagnostic or treatment procedure with intra-arterial IOCM or LOCM administration were identified using the Premier Healthcare Database. Patient subgroups including those with diabetes, heart failure, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 1–4, CKD 3–4, or diagnosis of chronic total occlusion (CTO) were formed. Subgroups with combinations of diabetes and CKD 3–4 with and without CTO were also investigated. We compared the primary endpoint of MARCE (composite of AKI, AKI requiring dialysis, acute myocardial infarction, stroke/transient ischemic attack, stent occlusion/thrombosis, or death) after IOCM versus LOCM administration via adjusted multivariable regression analyses. Results: A total of 536,013 inpatient visits met the primary inclusion and exclusion criteria (IOCM = 133,192; LOCM = 402,821). After multivariable modeling, the use of IOCM was associated with a significantly lower incidence of MARCE than LOCM in patients with CKD 1–4, CKD 3–4, diabetes, or heart failure, with greatest absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 2.4% (p < 0.0001) in CKD 3–4 patients (relative risk reduction [RRR] = 13.8%, number needed to treat [NNT] = 43). Additionally, ARR associated with IOCM increased to 3.5% (p < 0.0001) in patients with combined comorbidities of diabetes and CKD 3–4 (RRR = 19.1%, NNT = 29). Statistically significant risk reduction was also found for the use of IOCM among patients who underwent revascularization for CTO (ARR = 1.6% [p < 0.0001], RRR = 22.3%, NNT = 62). Conclusion: Intra-arterial administration using IOCM in at-risk patients is associated with lower rates of MARCE than the use of LOCM. This difference is especially apparent in patients with a combination of CKD 3–4 and diabetes and in patients with CTO, providing real-world data validation with meaningful NNT in favor of IOCM.