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Supplementary Material for: Management of Cardiovascular Disease in Kidney Disease Study: Rationale and Design

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posted on 26.02.2021, 06:25 by Shukla A.M., Segal M.S., Pepine C.J., Cheung A.K., Shuster J., Mohandas R., Martinez W.M., Flint J.J., Shah S.V.
Introduction: Atherosclerosis, inflammation, and vascular stiffness are prominent interrelated risk factors contributing to the high incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. Conventional CVD management strategies in CKD largely target atherosclerotic CVD and have had a limited impact on the cardiovascular mortality in this population. Multiple in vivo and in vitro studies and epidemiological evidence from the rheumatologic cohorts have shown that low-dose hydroxychloroquine has beneficial effects on inflammation, endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic syndrome. Our recent proof-of-concept animal study showed that hydroxychloroquine has marked protection against atherosclerosis and vascular stiffness. We hypothesize that hydroxychloroquine has the potential to provide significant cardiovascular benefits in patients with CKD. Methods: The Management of Cardiovascular disease in Kidney disease study (NCT 03636152) is a phase 2B, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the effects of low-dose hydroxychloroquine therapy on the parameters of atherosclerosis, inflammation, and vascular stiffness in patients with CKD. The study plans to enroll 100 CKD patients estimated to be at high cardiovascular risk by a combination of low estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria and treat them for 18 months with hydroxychloroquine or placebo in 1:1 allocation. Results: The study will assess the change in the total carotid plaque volume as measured by serial noncontrast carotid MRI as the primary outcome and the serial changes in plasma inflammation markers, vascular stiffness, renal function, and the composition characteristics of the carotid plaque as secondary outcome measures. Discussion/Conclusion: The results of this trial will provide the proof-of-applicability for hydroxychloroquine in the CVD in CKD. If positive, this trial should lead to phase-3 trials with clinical end points for this potentially transformative, novel, and inexpensive therapy for CVD in CKD.