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Supplementary Material for: Men and Women’s Alcohol Consumption by 4- to 8-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Investigation of Gendered Drinking Norms

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posted on 20.09.2022, 10:04 authored by Cook M., Kuntsche S., Smit K., Voogt C., Pennay A., Kuntsche E.
Introduction: Evidence suggests an association between perceived alcohol-related norms and personal consumption. These perceptions develop over years of observation and exposure to alcohol, likely beginning in early childhood, and likely differing by sex. Understanding the early development of perceptions of drinking may provide insight into the development of gendered drinking practices. The aim of this study was to explore boys’ and girls’ perceptions about men and women’s alcohol consumption and whether and how these change over time as children age. Methods: 329 children (aged 4–6 years at baseline) completed the Dutch electronic Appropriate Beverage Task annually for three consecutive years (2015 [baseline], 2016, 2017). Regression models were used to examine whether perceptions of consumption varied as a function of the gender of the adult, the participants’ sex, and any changes over time. Results: In illustrated pictures, children perceived that men (39%) drank alcoholic beverages more often than women (24%). Men were perceived to drink alcohol more frequently than women at baseline and this difference increased with age. Girls were more likely to perceive men drinking at baseline (aged 4–6), but there were few sex differences by time point three (aged 6–8). Discussion/Conclusion: From a young age, children perceive that men drink more than women. These perceptions strengthen as children grow older, with young girls perceiving these gender differences at earlier ages than boys. Understanding children’s perceptions of gendered drinking norms and their development over time can enable targeted prevention efforts.

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