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Supplementary Material for: Mitigation of Blood Load Impact in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage by Cisternal Lavage

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posted on 12.01.2022, 12:39 by Fistouris P., Scheiwe C., Grauvogel J., Csók I., Beck J., Reinacher P.C., Roelz R.
Object: The initial amount of subarachnoid and ventricular blood is an important prognostic factor for outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). In this comparative study of an unselected aSAH-population, we assess the modifiability of these factors by implementation of blood clearance by cisternal lavage. Methods: All patients with aSAH treated in our department between October 2011 and October 2019 (8 years, n = 458) were included in our study. In the first 4-year period (BEFORE, n = 237), patients were treated according to international guidelines. In the second 4-year period (AFTER, n = 221), cisternal lavage methods were available and applied in 72 high-risk patients (32.5%). The cisternal and ventricular blood load was recorded by the Hijdra score. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the prognostic significance of risk factors, including blood load, in relation to common aSAH characteristics in both study groups. Results: Worse neurological outcomes (mRS > 3) occurred in the BEFORE population with 41.45% versus 30.77% in the AFTER cohort, 6 months after aSAH (HR: 1.59, 95% CI 1.08–2.34, p = 0.01). Admission WFNS grade, comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index), herniation signs, concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage, and the development of delayed cerebral infarction were strongly associated with poor outcome in both study groups. Intraventricular and cisternal blood load and, particularly, a cast fourth ventricle (Cast 4) represented strong prognosticators of poor neurological outcome in the BEFORE cohort. This effect was lost after implementation of cisternal lavage (AFTER cohort). Conclusion: Cisternal and ventricular blood load – in particular: a Cast 4 – represent important prognosticators in patients with aSAH. They are, however, amenable to modification by blood clearing therapies.