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Supplementary Material for: Music from noise-canceling headphones is beneficial against anxiety in male bladder cancer patients undergoing follow-up cystoscopy: A prospective randomized trial

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posted on 2024-05-10, 09:13 authored by Cho H.-J., Chung H.S., Hwang E.C., Jung S.I., Kwon D., Park K., Patel D.P., Hsieh T.-C.
Introduction: Bladder cancer, with a greater incidence in males than in females, requires frequent cystoscopies. We aim to evaluate the effect of music played through noise-canceling headphones on male bladder cancer patients during follow-up cystoscopy. Methods: A total of 160 male bladder cancer patients undergoing follow-up flexible cystoscopy were randomly divided into the noise-canceling headphones without music group and the noise-canceling headphones with music group (groups 1 and 2, respectively; n = 80 per group). The patients’ clinical characteristics were examined and objective and subjective measurements were compared before and after cystoscopy. The primary outcomes that were evaluated included the visual analog scale (VAS, 0–10) and the state–trait anxiety inventory (STAI, 20–80). Other outcomes, including vital signs and scores for assessing satisfaction and the willingness to repeat the procedure, were also examined. Results: The characteristics of the patients in groups 1 and 2, and their pre-cystoscopy status, did not differ significantly. Although post-cystoscopy vital signs for the objective parameters and VAS pain scores were similar between the groups, subjective parameters were not. When compared with group 1, post-cystoscopy STAI-state scores were significantly lower in group 2, whereas patients’ satisfaction scores and the willingness to repeat the procedure were significantly higher in group 2 (p = 0.002, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). Additionally, in group 2, STAI-state scores changed significantly after the procedure when compared with before the procedure (p = 0.002). Conclusion: In male bladder cancer patients, music from noise-canceling headphones might have reduced anxiety and improved satisfaction and the willingness to repeat cystoscopy.


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