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Supplementary Material for: Neuroendocrine Tumor Omic Gene Cluster Analysis Amplifies the Prognostic Accuracy of the NETest

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posted on 11.08.2020, 12:54 by Kidd M., Kitz A., Drozdov I., Modlin I.
Background: The NETest is a multigene assay comprising 51 circulating neuroendocrine tumor (NET)-specific transcripts. The quotient of the 51-gene assay is based upon an ensemble of machine learning algorithms. Eight cancer hallmarks or “omes” (apoptome, epigenome, growth factor signalome, metabolome, proliferome, plurome, secretome, SSTRome) represent 29 genes. The NETest is an accurate diagnostic (>90%) test, but its prognostic utility has not been assessed. In this study, we describe the expansion of the NETest omic cluster components and demonstrate that integration amplifies NETest prognostic accuracy. Methods: Group 1: n = 222; including stable disease (SD, n = 146), progressive disease (PD, n = 76), and controls (n = 139). Group 2: NET Registry NCT02270567; n = 88; prospective samples (SD, n = 54; PD, n = 34) with up to 24 months follow-up. We used PubMed literature review, interactomic analysis, nonparametric testing, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and χ2 analyses to inform and define the prognostic significance of NET genomic “hallmarks.” Results: 2020 analyses: In-depth analyses of 47 ­NETest genes identified a further six omes: fibrosome, inflammasome, metastasome, NEDome, neurome, and TFome. Group 1 analysis: Twelve omes, excluding the inflammasome and apoptome, were significantly (p < 0.05, 2.1- to 8.2-fold) elevated compared to controls. In the PD group, seven omes (proliferome, NEDome, epigenome, SSTRome, neurome, metastasome, and fibrosome) were elevated (both expression levels and fold change >2) versus SD. Group 2 analysis: All these seven omes were upregulated. In PD, they were significantly more elevated (p < 0.02) than in SD. The septet omic expression exhibited a 69% prognostic accuracy. The NETest alone was 70.5% accurate. A low NETest (≤40) integrated with epigenome/metastasome levels was an accurate prognostic for PD (90%). A high NETest (>40) including the fibrosome/NEDome predicted PD development within 3 months (100%). Using decision tree analysis to integrate the four omes (epigenome, metastasome, fibrosome, and NEDome) with the NETest score generated an overall prognostic accuracy of 93%. Conclusions: Examination of NETest omic gene cluster analysis identified five additional clinically relevant cancer hallmarks. Identification of seven omic clusters (septet) provides a molecular pathological signature of disease progression. The integration of the quartet (epigenome, fibrosome, metastasome, NEDome) and the NETest score yielded a 93% accuracy in the prediction of future disease status.

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