Supplementary Material for: Neuroinflammation in Response to Intracerebral Injections of Different HMGB1 Redox Isoforms
datasetposted on 23.02.2018 by Aucott H., Lundberg J., Salo H., Klevenvall L., Damberg P., Ottosson L., Andersson U., Holmin S., Erlandsson Harris H.
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Background: Neuroinflammation triggered by infection or trauma is the cause of central nervous system dysfunction. High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), released from stressed and dying brain cells, is a potent neuroinflammatory mediator. The proinflammatory functions of HMGB1 are tightly regulated by post-translational redox modifications, and we here investigated detailed neuroinflammatory responses induced by the individual redox isoforms. Methods: Male Dark Agouti rats received a stereotactic injection of saline, lipopolysaccharide, disulfide HMGB1, or fully reduced HMGB1, and were accessed for blood-brain barrier modifications using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and inflammatory responses by immunohistochemistry. Results and Conclusions: Significant blood-brain barrier disruption appeared 24 h after injection of lipopolysaccharide, disulfide HMGB1, or fully reduced HMGB1 compared to controls, as assessed in post-gadolinium T1-weighted MRI images and confirmed by increased uptake of FITC-conjugated dextran. Immunohistochemistry revealed that both HMGB1 isoforms also induced a local production of IL-1β. Additionally, disulfide HMGB1 increased major histocompatibility complex class II expression and apoptosis. Together, the results demonstrate that extracellular, cerebral HMGB1 causes significant blood-brain barrier disruption in a redox-independent manner and activates several components of neuroinflammation. Blocking HMGB1 might potentially improve clinical outcome in conditions such as stroke and traumatic brain injury.