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Supplementary Material for: New Reference Values for Thyroid Volume and a Comprehensive Assessment for Influencing Factors in Chinese Adults with Iodine Sufficiency

posted on 22.07.2021, 09:17 by Guo W., Tan L., Dong S., Jin Y., Zhu M., Wei H., Chen Y., Fan L., Du C., Zhang W.
Objectives: The reference values for thyroid volume (Tvol) determined by ultrasound require supportive data of normal Tvol from local iodine-sufficient populations. This study aimed to explore new reference values for Tvol in Chinese adults and comprehensively evaluate the factors associated with enlarged Tvol. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tianjin, China. Tvol was measured by ultrasound in adults with long-term iodine sufficiency. Blood and urine samples were collected to evaluate biochemical indexes, thyroid function, and iodine status. Results: A total of 1,991 adults from the urban and suburban areas were analysed. The trend of Tvol increasing with age was observed in men under age 40 years and in women under age 52 years. In the quantile regression analyses, we found that body surface area (BSA) (β = 7.22, 95% CI: 5.33, 9.12), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (β = −1.48, 95% CI: −2.39, −0.57), thyroid nodules (TNs) (β = 6.70, 95% CI: 2.19, 11.22), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) (β = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.63, 2.17) had a strong effect on Tvol at higher percentiles in males. The dominant factors influencing Tvol were BSA (β = 9.64, 95% CI: 2.66, 16.61), TSH (β = −0.78, 95% CI: −1.16, −0.39), and TNs (β = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.43, 1.79) in females. The largest reference values for Tvol based on BSA were 20.18 (17.79, 24.32) mL in males and 15.31 (14.05, 16.70) mL in females. Conclusions: Quantile regression analyses showed that a high BSA index, a decreased TSH level, and the prevalence of TNs were essential factors associated with the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Our findings reported the new reference values for Tvol determined by ultrasound based on gender and BSA in Chinese adults.