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Supplementary Material for: Plasma Mucin-1 (CA15-3) Levels in Autosomal Dominant Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease due to MUC1 Mutations

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posted on 07.06.2021, 09:59 by Vylet’al P., Kidd K., Ainsworth H.C., Springer D., Vrbacká A., Přistoupilová A., Hughey R.P., Alper S.L., Lennon N., Harrison S., Harden M., Robins V., Taylor A., Martin L., Howard K., Bitar I., Langefeld C.D., Barešová V., Hartmannová H., Hodaňová K., Zima T., Živná M., Kmoch S., Bleyer A.J.
Introduction: Patients with ADTKD-MUC1 have one allele producing normal mucin-1 (MUC1) and one allele producing mutant MUC1, which remains intracellular. We hypothesized that ADTKD-MUC1 patients, who have only 1 secretory-competent wild-type MUC1 allele, should exhibit decreased plasma mucin-1 (MUC1) levels. To test this hypothesis, we repurposed the serum CA15-3 assay used to measure MUC1 in breast cancer to measure plasma MUC1 levels in ADTKD-MUC1. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed CA15-3 levels in a reference population of 6,850 individuals, in 85 individuals with ADTKD-MUC1, and in a control population including 135 individuals with ADTKD-UMOD and 114 healthy individuals. Results: Plasma CA15-3 levels (mean ± standard deviation) were 8.6 ± 4.3 U/mL in individuals with ADTKD-MUC1 and 14.6 ± 5.6 U/mL in controls (p < 0.001). While there was a significant difference in mean CA15-3 levels, there was substantial overlap between the 2 groups. Plasma CA15-3 levels were <5 U/mL in 22% of ADTKD-MUC1 patients, in 0/249 controls, and in 1% of the reference population. Plasma CA15-3 levels were >20 U/mL in 1/85 ADTKD-MUC1 patients, in 18% of control individuals, and in 25% of the reference population. Segregation of plasma CA15-3 levels by the rs4072037 genotype did not significantly improve differentiation between affected and unaffected individuals. CA15-3 levels were minimally affected by gender and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Discussion/Conclusions: Plasma CA15-3 levels in ADTKD-MUC1 patients are approximately 40% lower than levels in healthy individuals, though there is significant overlap between groups. Further investigations need to be performed to see if plasma CA15-3 levels would be useful in diagnosis, prognosis, or assessing response to new therapies in this disorder.