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Supplementary Material for: Post-Progression Treatment Eligibility of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Lenvatinib

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posted on 18.10.2019, 06:17 by Hiraoka A., Kumada T., Fukunishi S., Atsukawa M., Hirooka M., Tsuji K., Ishikawa T., Takaguchi K., Kariyama K., Itobayashi E., Tajiri K., Shimada N., Shibata H., Ochi H., Tada T., Toyoda H., Yokohama K., Nouso K., Tsutsui A., Nagano T., Itokawa N., Hayama K., Arai T., Imai M., Joko K., Koizumi Y., Hiasa Y., Michitaka K., Kudo M., On behalf of the Real-Life Practice Experts for HCC (RELPEC) Study Group and HCC 48 Group (hepatocellular carcinoma experts from 48 clinics in Japan)
Background/Aim: Post-progression treatment following tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) failure in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC) is important to prolong post-progression survival (PPS), which has a good correlation with overall survival (OS). This study aimed to elucidate the clinical features of progressive disease (PD) in patients treated with lenvatinib (LEN). Materials/Methods: From March 2018 to June 2019, 156 u-HCC patients with Child-Pugh A were enrolled (median age: 71 years, Child-Pugh score 5:6 = 105:51, BCLC A:B:C = 8:56:92, modified albumin-bilirubin grade (mALBI) 1:2a:2b = 59:42:55, past history of sorafenib:regorafenib = 57:17). Clinical features were retrospectively evaluated. Results: The median observation period was 8.5 months. Median OS was not obtained, while median time to decline to Child-Pugh B (CPB) was 11.4 months, median time to progression (TTP) was 8.4 months, and the period of LEN administration was 7.3 months. When we compared predictive values for time to decline to CPB based on Child-Pugh score and mALBI, values for Akaike information criterion (AIC) score and c-index of mALBI were superior as compared to Child-Pugh score (AIC: 592.3 vs. 599.7) (c-index: 0.655 vs. 0.597). Of the 73 patients with PD, 32 (43.8%) showed no decline to CPB or death. After excluding 3 without alpha-fetoprotein data at PD determination, only 14 (20.0%) of 70 showed REACH-2 eligibility. Non-mALBI 1/2a at the start of LEN was a significant risk factor for decline to CPB during LEN treatment (HR 2.552, 95% CI: 1.577–4.129; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Introduction of TKI therapy including LEN for u-HCC patients with better hepatic function (mALBI 1/2a: ALBI score ≤–2.27), when possible, increases the chance of undergoing post-progression treatment, which can improve PPS.