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Supplementary Material for: Postdischarge Recovery after Acute Pediatric Lung Disease Can Be Quantified with Digital Biomarkers

posted on 18.05.2021, 09:38 by Kruizinga M.D., Moll A., Zhuparris A., Ziagkos D., Stuurman F.E., Nuijsink M., Cohen A.F., Driessen G.J.A.
Background: Pediatric patients admitted for acute lung disease are treated and monitored in the hospital, after which full recovery is achieved at home. Many studies report in-hospital recovery, but little is known regarding the time to full recovery after hospital discharge. Technological innovations have led to increased interest in home-monitoring and digital biomarkers. The aim of this study was to describe at-home recovery of 3 common pediatric respiratory diseases using a questionnaire and wearable device. Methods: In this study, patients admitted due to pneumonia (n = 30), preschool wheezing (n = 30), and asthma exacerbation (AE; n = 11) were included. Patients were monitored with a smartwatch and a questionnaire during admission, with a 14-day recovery period and a 10-day “healthy” period. Median compliance was calculated, and a mixed-effects model was fitted for physical activity and heart rate (HR) to describe the recovery period, and the physical activity recovery trajectory was correlated to respiratory symptom scores. Results: Median compliance was 47% (interquartile range [IQR] 33–81%) during the entire study period, 68% (IQR 54–91%) during the recovery period, and 28% (IQR 0–74%) during the healthy period. Patients with pneumonia reached normal physical activity 12 days postdischarge, while subjects with wheezing and AE reached this level after 5 and 6 days, respectively. Estimated mean physical activity was closely correlated with the estimated mean symptom score. HR measured by the smartwatch showed a similar recovery trajectory for subjects with wheezing and asthma, but not for subjects with pneumonia. Conclusions: The digital biomarkers, physical activity, and HR obtained via smartwatch show promise for quantifying postdischarge recovery in a noninvasive manner, which can be useful in pediatric clinical trials and clinical care.