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Supplementary Material for: Potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia and mild cognitive impairment: an umbrella review and meta-analysis

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posted on 2024-02-12, 11:48 authored by Jones A., Ali M.U., Kenny M., Mayhew A., Mokashi V., He H., Lin S., Yavari E., Paik K., Subramanian D., Dydynsky R., Aryal K., Correia R.H., Dash D., Manis D.R., O'Connell M., Liu-Ambrose T., Taler V., McMillan J.M., Hogan D.B., Kirkland S., Costa A.P., Wolfson C., Raina P., Griffith L.
Introduction The prevalence of mild and major neurocognitive disorders (NCDs), also referred to as mild cognitive impairment and dementia, is rising globally. The prevention of NCDs is a major global public health interest. We sought to synthesize the literature on potentially modifiable risk factors for NCDs. Methods We conducted an umbrella review using a systematic search across multiple databases to identify relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Eligible reviews examined potentially modifiable risk factors for mild or major NCDs. We used a random effects multi-level meta-analytic approach to synthesize risk ratios for each risk factor while accounting for overlap in the reviews. We further examined risk factors for major NCD due to two common etiologies: Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Results A total of 45 reviews with 212 meta-analyses were synthesized. We identified fourteen broadly defined modifiable risk factors that were significantly associated with these disorders: alcohol consumption, body weight, depression, diabetes mellitus, diet, hypertension, less education, physical inactivity, sensory loss, sleep disturbance, smoking, social isolation, traumatic brain injury, and vitamin D deficiency. All 14 factors were associated with the risk of major NCD, and five were associated with mild NCD. We found considerably less research for vascular dementia and mild NCD. Conclusion Our review quantifies the risk associated with 14 potentially modifiable risk factors for mild and major NCDs, including several factors infrequently included in dementia action plans. Prevention strategies should consider approaches that reduce the incidence and severity of these risk factors through health promotion, identification, and early management.


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