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Supplementary Material for: Presence of Tertiary Lymphoid Organ in Nasal Inverted Papilloma Is Correlated with Eosinophil Infiltration and Local Immunoglobulin Production

posted on 18.11.2020, 14:28 by Bao Q., Guo X.-X., Cao C., Li Q.-Y., Sun L., Ye X.-Y., Li L.-Y., Dong J.-C., Gao Y.-F., Chen H.-X., Li C.-W.
Introduction: Nasal inverted papilloma (NIP) is a benign tumour with multiple inflammatory cell infiltration. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) support local antibody production and play important roles in airway inflammation. However, the evidence of TLOs and local immunoglobulins in NIP has not been reported yet. We investigated the presence of TLOs and immunoglobulins in NIP tissues and their association with the clinical-pathological characteristics of NIPs. Methods: We analyzed the occurrence and composition of TLOs and local immunoglobulins by immunohistochemistry and evaluated the lymph organogenesis associated genes and cytokines by quantitative qPCR and Luminex assays, respectively, in papilloma tissues from 84 NIP cases. Results: TLOs were present in 54% (45/84) of the NIP patients but not in control subjects. TLOs were composed of T cells, B cells, follicular dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells. Compared to NIP tissues without TLOs, tissues with TLOs showed significantly higher eosinophil infiltration levels (3.5-fold), elevation of lymphorganogenic genes (CXCL12, CXCL13, CCL20, CCL21, CD21L, and lymphotoxin alpha and beta), and increased Th17 (IL-21, IL-22, and GM-CSF) and Th2 (IL-5 and IL-13) cytokine production. Moreover, NIP with TLOs demonstrated a higher number of follicular T helper cells and immunoglobulin-producing plasma cells (CD138+ IgA+, CD138+ IgM+, CD138+ IgE+, and CD138+ IgG+) than those without TLOs, and these antibody-producing cells were positively correlated with the eosinophil number. Conclusion: The high frequency of TLOs and excess local immunoglobulin production are associated with an eosinophilic and Th2 skew microenvironment in the NIP mucosa, which would contribute to an important immunopathogenic response during NIP pathogenesis.