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Supplementary Material for: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Patients with Bronchiectasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

posted on 31.08.2021, 05:44 by Zhu Y., Xie J., He X., Peng B., Wang C., Zhang G., Xu J., Gao Y.
Background: Although international bronchiectasis guidelines recommended screening of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) both at initial evaluation and prior to administration of macrolide treatment, data regarding NTM in bronchiectasis remain elusive. Objective: To establish the prevalence, species, and clinical features of NTM in adults with bronchiectasis. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for studies published before April 2020 reporting the prevalence of NTM in adults with bronchiectasis. We only included studies with bronchiectasis confirmed by computed tomography and NTM identified by mycobacteria culture or molecular methods. Random-effects meta-analysis was employed. Results: Of the 2,229 citations identified, 21 studies, including 12,454 bronchiectasis patients were included in the final meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of NTM isolation and pulmonary NTM disease were 7.7% (5.0%–11.7%) (n/N = 2,677/12,454) and 4.1% (1.4%–11.4%) (n/N = 30/559), respectively, with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 97.7%, p < 0.001 and I2 = 79.9%, p = 0.007; respectively). The prevalence of NTM isolation varied significantly among different geographical regions with the highest isolation at 50.0% (47.3%–52.7%) reported in the United States. Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium abscessus complex accounted for 66 and 16.6% of all species, respectively. Some clinical and radiological differences were noted between patients with and without the presence of NTM isolation although the results are inconsistent. Conclusions: Heterogeneity in prevalence estimates of NTM isolation indicated that both local surveys to inform development of clinical services tailored to patients with bronchiectasis and population-based studies are needed. The clinical features associated with NTM in bronchiectasis and their incremental utility in studying the association is unknown and merits further investigation.