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Supplementary Material for: Prevalence of Polypharmacy and Risks of Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in the Older Population in a Developing Country: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

posted on 11.05.2021, 07:03 by Bhagavathula A.S., Gebreyohannes E.A., Fialova D.
Background and Aim: Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use in older populations (65+ years) have not yet been investigated by meta-analyses in developing countries. This systematic literature review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the prevalence of polypharmacy and PIM use and major risk factors associated with PIM prescribing in older adults in Ethiopia. Methods: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar databases to identify relevant studies published between January 1990 and October 2020. Observational studies reporting the prevalence and association of risk factors with polypharmacy and PIM use in the older population were meta-analyzed. A multilevel meta-analysis was conducted to pool the prevalence estimates, and the risk of PIM use was reported as a relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: We identified by systematic literature review 404 articles. Of those, 8 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria, comprising a total sample of 2,608 participants. The overall prevalence of polypharmacy and PIM use pooled by meta-analysis in the Ethiopian older population was 33 and 37%, respectively. The risk factors of PIM use were analyzed in the meta-analysis (particularly polymorbidity, polypharmacy, gender, and older age), and only older age of 65+ (RR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.16–2.51) was significantly associated with PIM use. Conclusion: This first meta-analysis from a developing country revealed a high prevalence of polypharmacy and PIM use in the Ethiopian older population. There was no awareness about the risk of PIMs in patients with polypharmacy and polymorbidity, and older age significantly predicted PIM use. Interventions ensuring rational geriatric pharmacotherapy are essential in developing countries in order to reduce the expected burden of PIM-related geriatric morbidity, higher costs, and mortality.