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Supplementary Material for: Proteogenomic Insights into the Physiology of Marine, Sulfate-Reducing, Filamentous Desulfonema limicola and Desulfonema magnum

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posted on 19.02.2021, 07:35 by Schnaars V., Wöhlbrand L., Scheve S., Hinrichs C., Reinhardt R., Rabus R.
The genus Desulfonema belongs to the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfobacteraceae and comprises marine, sulfate-reducing bacteria that form filaments and move by gliding. This study reports on the complete, manually annotated genomes of Dn. limicola 5ac10T (6.91 Mbp; 6,207 CDS) and Dn. magnum 4be13T (8.03 Mbp; 9,970 CDS), integrated with substrate-specific proteome profiles (8 vs. 11). The richness in mobile genetic elements is shared with other Desulfobacteraceae members, corroborating horizontal gene transfer as major driver in shaping the genomes of this family. The catabolic networks of Dn. limicola and Dn. magnum have the following general characteristics: 98 versus 145 genes assigned (having genomic shares of 1.7 vs. 2.2%), 92.5 versus 89.7% proteomic coverage, and scattered gene clusters for substrate degradation and energy metabolism. The Dn. magnum typifying capacity for aromatic compound degradation (e.g., p-cresol, 3-phenylpropionate) requires 48 genes organized in operon-like structures (87.7% proteomic coverage; no homologs in Dn. limicola). The protein complements for aliphatic compound degradation, central pathways, and energy metabolism are highly similar between both genomes and were identified to a large extent (69–96%). The differential protein profiles revealed a high degree of substrate-specificity for peripheral reaction sequences (forming central intermediates), agreeing with the high number of sensory/regulatory proteins predicted for both strains. By contrast, central pathways and modules of the energy metabolism were constitutively formed under the tested substrate conditions. In accord with their natural habitats that are subject to fluctuating changes of physicochemical parameters, both Desulfonema strains are well equipped to cope with various stress conditions. Next to superoxide dismutase and catalase also desulfoferredoxin and rubredoxin oxidoreductase are formed to counter exposure to molecular oxygen. A variety of proteases and chaperones were detected that function in maintaining cellular homeostasis upon heat or cold shock. Furthermore, glycine betaine/proline betaine transport systems can respond to hyperosmotic stress. Gliding movement probably relies on twitching motility via type-IV pili or adventurous motility. Taken together, this proteogenomic study demonstrates the adaptability of Dn. limicola and Dn. magnum to its dynamic habitats by means of flexible catabolism and extensive stress response capacities.