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Supplementary Material for: Regulator of G Protein Signaling Transcript Expression in Human Neural Progenitor Differentiation: R7 Subfamily Regulation by DNA Methylation

posted on 04.06.2014, 00:00 by Tuggle K., Ali M.W., Salazar H., Hooks S.B.
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their ligands are critical regulators of neural progenitor differentiation, and GPCR signaling pathways are regulated by regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins. RGS protein expression is dynamically regulated, and we have recently described the epigenetic regulation of RGS transcript expression. Given the potential of RGS proteins to regulate GPCR signaling and the established role of epigenetic regulation in progenitor differentiation, we explored the impact of epigenetic regulation of RGS transcripts during in vitro differentiation of human neural progenitors. Here, we demonstrate robust upregulation of the RGS transcripts RGS4, RGS5, RGS6, RGS7, and RGS11 during neuronal differentiation, while DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylase enzyme expression is suppressed during differentiation. Transcripts encoding R7 subfamily RGS proteins and the R7-binding partners R7BP and R9AP showed the greatest upregulation. Further, we showed that direct pharmacological inhibition of DNMT activity enhances expression of RGS2, RGS4, RGS5, RGS6, RGS7, RGS8, RGS9L, RGS10, and RGS14 as well as R7BP and R9AP transcripts in progenitors, consistent with regulation by DNMTs. Our results reveal marked upregulation of RGS expression during neuronal differentiation and suggest that decreased expression of DNMT enzymes during differentiation contributes to upregulation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel