Supplementary Material for: Relapsing and Progressive Complications of Severe Hypertriglyceridemia: Effective Long-Term Treatment with Double Filtration Plasmapheresis

posted on 19.03.2020 by Grupp C., Beckermann J., Köster E., Zewinger S., Knittel M., Walek T., Hohenstein B., Jaeger B., Spitthöver R., Klingel R., Fassbender C.M., Tyczynski B.
Background: Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is associated with major complications such as acute or relapsing pancreatitis (AP) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Rapid elimination of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (LP) with double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) without need for substitution has been found to be effective for the acute, short-term treatment of HTG-induced AP. Data on the long-term use of DFPP to prevent HTG-associated complications are scarce. Objectives: To evaluate the use and efficacy of regular DFPP treatment in clinical practice for preventing recurrence of HTG-associated complications in thera­py refractory patients. Methods: Retrospective multicenter study in patients with severe symptomatic drug and diet refractory HTG with regular DFPP treatment. Patients’ incidence of HTG-associated pancreatic or cardiovascular complications was compared before treatment and with regular DFPP treatment. Results: Ten patients (3 female) were identified with baseline maximal TG concentrations of 2,587–28,090 mg/dL (median 5,487 mg/dL; interquartile range [IQR] 4,340–12,636). The mean observation period was 3.9 ± 3.4 years before and 3.8 ± 3.0 years after commencement of DFPP. In 5 patients, severe HTG was related to chylomicronemia, 2 patients had familial partial lipodystrophy Dunnigan, and 1 patient had additional LP(a)-hyperlipoproteinemia. The main HTG-associated complication was recurrent AP in 8 patients, including 1 patient treated during pregnancy. Two patients presented severe progressive ASCVD. With long-term DFPP treatment, the annual rate of HTG-associa­ted pancreatic or cardiovascular complications declined from median 1.4 (IQR 0.7–2.6) to 0 (IQR 0.0–0.4; p < 0.005). The absolute number of events was reduced by 77%. In 6 patients (60%) episodes of AP did not occur, nor was progression of ASCVD detected clinically or by routine imaging techniques. DFPP was effective in the elimination of TG-rich LP from plasma, and was safe and well-tolerated. Conclusion: Long-term, regular DFPP treatment resulted in stabilization of patients with severe HTG and related recurrent AP or progression of ASCVD, who were refractory to conventional dietary and drug therapy.