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Supplementary Material for: Remineralisation by Chewing Sugar-Free Gums in a Randomised, Controlled in situ Trial Including Dietary Intake and Gauze to Promote Plaque Formation

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posted on 05.04.2012, 00:00 by Cochrane N.J., Shen P., Byrne S.J., Walker G.D., Adams G.G., Yuan Y., Reynolds C., Hoffmann B., Dashper S.G., Reynolds E.C.
Remineralisation has been shown to be an effective mechanism of preventing the progression of enamel caries. The aim of this double-blind, randomised, cross-over in situ study was to compare enamel remineralisation by chewing sugar-free gum with or without casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) where the enamel lesions were exposed to dietary intake and some were covered with gauze to promote plaque formation. Participants wore removable palatal appliances containing 3 recessed enamel half-slabs with subsurface lesions covered with gauze and 3 without gauze. Mineral content was measured by transverse microradiography, and plaque composition was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. For both the gauze-free and gauze-covered lesions, the greatest amount of remineralisation was produced by the CPP-ACP sugar-free gum, followed by the gum without CPP-ACP and then the no-gum control. Recessing the enamel in the appliance allowed plaque accumulation without the need for gauze. There was a trend of less remineralisation and greater variation in mineral content for the gauze-covered lesions. The cell numbers of total bacteria and streptococci were slightly higher in the plaque from the gauze-covered enamel for 2 of the 3 treatment legs; however, there was no significant difference in Streptococcus mutans cell numbers. In conclusion, chewing sugar-free gum containing CPP-ACP promoted greater levels of remineralisation than a sugar-free gum without CPP-ACP or a no-gum control using an in situ remineralisation model including dietary intake irrespective of whether gauze was used to promote plaque formation or not.