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Supplementary Material for: Role of a Rare Variant in APC Gene Promoter 1B Region in Classic Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

posted on 23.07.2020, 08:59 by Yang M., Zhu L., Xu D., Yuan Y.
Background: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is most commonly caused by germline variants in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Although definite pathogenic variants could be detected in the majority of individuals with FAP, there are still numerous variant-negative FAP patients. Method: We utilized a 139-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to detect pathogenic variants in FAP patients and found a variant-negative pedigree. Through whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified a point variant in the noncoding region in the APC gene. Finally, we used Sanger sequencing to analyze its pedigree cosegregation and a dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assay to assess its function. Results: With the exception of 2 variants of undetermined significance (VUS), WES showed no pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. After performing MLPA, the pedigree was still variant-negative. Interestingly, through WES, a point variant c.-190G>A located in the promoter 1B region of the APC gene was identified in 3 affected individuals. Moreover, a variant carrier was found during screening of the family with Sanger sequencing. Through the DLR assay, we further confirmed that the variant c.-190G>A caused significant suppression of downstream transcription of APC. Conclusions: The variant (c.-190G>A) in the APC promoter 1B region is able to cause FAP with a classic phenotype, but this kind of variant in the noncoding region could be missed by conventional genetic testing. Thus, utilizing sequencing technologies covering a larger area can help us to further explore the pathogenesis in variant-negative FAP cases.