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Supplementary Material for: Sarcopenic Obesity in Chronic Kidney Disease: Challenges in Diagnosis Using Different Diagnostic Criteria

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posted on 28.07.2021, 12:31 by Bellafronte N.T., deQueirósMattosoOno A., Chiarello P.G.
Objectives: Obesity, muscle impairment (low muscle mass or strength), and sarcopenic obesity are present in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are associated with worse clinical prognosis. However, the various existing definitions for these conditions make the diagnosis variable. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between diagnostic criteria for sarcopenic obesity and its components in CKD. Subject and Methods: 267 patients with CKD were included in the study. We assessed body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle function by handgrip strength (HGS) and adiposity by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fat mass index (FMI), and percentage of FM. Diagnosis of muscle impairment was made by HGS, appendicular lean mass (ALM), and ALM index; obesity by BMI, WC, FMI, and %FM, and sarcopenic obesity was diagnosed by concomitant presence of muscle impairment and obesity. Results: Prevalence of muscle impairment varied from 11 to 50%, higher when low muscle mass criteria were used. Prevalence of obesity varied from 26 to 62%, higher when WC and %FM criteria were used. Prevalence of sarcopenic obesity varied from 2 to 23%. Women were more affected by sarcopenic obesity. Muscle impairment and sarcopenic obesity were more prevalent among patients on hemodialysis and obesity among nondialysis-dependent and kidney transplant patients. The agreement was poor between muscle mass and strength criteria; substantial between FMI, BMI, and %FM and fair between WC and the other measures; for sarcopenic obesity, it varied from poor to almost perfect. Conclusion: Significant differences were found among the various diagnostic criteria that are used in the diagnosis of sarcopenic obesity. Our results highlight the need for standardization in the diagnosis of sarcopenic obesity.