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Supplementary Material for: Second Trimester Maternal Leptin Levels Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain but not Birth Weight of the Infant

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posted on 25.10.2019, 07:10 by Serapio S., Ahlsson F., Larsson A., KunovacKallak T.
Introduction: Obesity is increasing among the pregnant population. Leptin has an important role in the regulation of energy balance and hunger. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal leptin levels with maternal obesity, gestational weight gain (GWG), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the leptin gene, and the age-adjusted birth weight of the child. Material and Methods: Maternal leptin levels (n = 740) and SNPs (n = 504) were analyzed in blood samples taken within the Uppsala Biobank of Pregnant women at pregnancy weeks 16–19. Results: Maternal leptin levels differed significantly between body mass index (BMI) groups. Normal weight women had the lowest median leptin levels and levels increased with each BMI group. Leptin SNP genotype was not associated with leptin levels or BMI. There was also no association between maternal leptin levels and age-adjusted birth weight of the child except for a negative association between leptin levels and birth weight in the morbid obese group. Discussion/Conclusion: Maternal BMI was identified as the best positive explanatory factor for maternal leptin levels. Leptin was a strong positive explanatory factor for GWG. Birth weight of children of uncomplicated pregnancies was, however, dependent on maternal height, BMI, GWG, and parity but not leptin levels, except for in morbid obese women where a negative association between maternal leptin levels and birth weight was found. We speculate that this indicates altered placental function, not manifested in pregnancy complication. We conclude that maternal leptin levels do not affect the birth weight of the child more than BMI, GWG, and parity.

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