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Supplementary Material for: Short-Term Air Pollution as a Risk for Stroke Admission: A Time-Series Analysis

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posted on 10.08.2020, 07:06 by Byrne C.P., Bennett K.E., Hickey A., Kavanagh P., Broderick B., O’Mahony M., Williams D.J.
Background: The harmful effects of outdoor air pollution on stroke incidence are becoming increasingly recognised. We examined the impact of different air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, ozone, and SO2) on admission for all strokes in two Irish urban centres from 2013 to 2017. Methods: Using an ecological time series design with Poisson regression models, we analysed daily hospitalisation for all strokes and is­chaemic stroke by residence in Dublin or Cork, with air pollution level monitoring data with a lag of 0–2 days from exposure. Splines of temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, and time were included as confounders. Analysis was also performed across all four seasons. Data are presented as relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in each pollutant. Results: There was no significant association between all stroke admission and any individual air pollutant. On seasonal analysis, during winter in the larger urban centre (Dublin), we found an association between all stroke cases and an IQR increase in NO2 (RR 1.035, 95% CI: 1.003–1.069), PM10 (RR 1.032, 95% CI: 1.007–1.057), PM2.5 (RR 1.024, 95% CI: 1.011–1.039), and SO2 (RR 1.035, 95% CI: 1.001–1.071). There was no significant association found in the smaller urban area of Cork. On meta-analysis, there remained a significant association between NO2 (RR 1.013, 95% CI: 1.001–1.024) and PM2.5 (1.009, 95% CI 1.004–1.014) per IQR increase in each. Discussion: Short-term air pollution in winter was found to be associated with hospitalisation for all strokes in a large urban centre in Ireland. As Ireland has relatively low air pollution internationally, this highlights the need to introduce policy changes to reduce air pollution in all countries.

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