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Supplementary Material for: Short- and Long-Term Functional Connectivity Differences Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease Progression

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posted on 23.09.2021, 07:55 authored by Mondragón J.D., Marapin R., DeDeyn P.P., Maurits N., for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Introduction: Progression of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a clinical event with highly variable progression rates varying from 10–15% up to 30–34%. Functional connectivity (FC), the temporal similarity between spatially remote neurophysiological events, has previously been reported to differ between aMCI patients who progress to AD (pMCI) and those who do not (i.e., remain stable; sMCI). However, these reports had a short-term follow-up and do not provide insight into long-term AD progression. Methods: Seventy-nine participants with a baseline and 78 with a 12-month, 51 with a 24-month, and 22 with a +48-month follow-up resting-state fMRI with aMCI diagnosis from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database were included. FC was assessed using the CONN toolbox. Local correlation and group independent component analysis were utilized to compare regional functional coupling and between-network FC, respectively, between sMCI and pMCI groups. Two-sample t tests were used to test for statistically significant differences between groups, and paired t-tests were used to assess cognitive changes over time. Results: All participants (i.e., 66 sMCI and 19 pMCI) had a baseline and a year follow-up fMRI scan. Progression from aMCI to AD occurred in 19 patients (10 at 12 months, 5 at 24 months, and 4 at >48 months), while 73 MCI patients remained cognitively stable (sMCI). The pMCI and sMCI cognitive profiles were different. More between-network FC than regional functional coupling differences were present between sMCI and pMCI patients. Activation in the salience network (SN) and the default mode network (DMN) was consistently different between sMCI and pMCI patients across time. Discussion: sMCI and pMCI patients have different cognitive and FC profiles. Only pMCI patients showed cognitive differences across time. The DMN and SN showed local correlation and between-network FC differences between the sMCI and pMCI patient groups at multiple moments in time.