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Supplementary Material for: Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Thickness Correlates with Exercise Tolerance in Patients with COPD

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posted on 22.11.2022, 08:57 authored by Shiraishi M., Higashimoto Y., Sugiya R., Mizusawa H., Takeda Y., Fujita S., Nishiyama O., Kudo S., Kimura T., Fukuda K., Tohda Y.
Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have difficulties inhaling as the diaphragm becomes flattened and weakened due to lung hyperinflation. This weakened respiratory function is compensated for by the increased activity of the accessory respiratory muscles, such as the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the difference in the SCM thickening fraction (SCM TF) of each respiratory phase (end-expiration, resting inspiration, and end-inspiration), as measured using ultrasonography (US), between patients with COPD and control subjects. We also evaluate the correlation between the SCM TF of each respiratory phase and exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. Methods: Patients with COPD (n = 44) and age-matched controls (n = 20) underwent US for determination of the SCM TF. Ventilation parameters, including the peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) and the change in the inspiratory capacity, were measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The SCM thickness and TF was measured during end-expiration, resting breathing, and end-inspiration. Results: The SCM was significantly thinner in patients with COPD than in controls at end-expiration. The increase in the SCM TF from end-expiration to end-inspiration in patients with COPD did not differ significantly from that in control subjects. In contrast, the SCM TF from end-expiration to resting inspiration was significantly greater in patients with COPD than in control subjects. The peak VO2 was strongly positively correlated with the SCM TF from end-expiration to end-inspiration in patients with COPD (r = 0.71, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The SCM may be thinner in patients with COPD than in controls. The SCM TF may also be associated with exercise tolerance.