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Supplementary Material for: Stimulation Sweet Spot in Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation – Myth or Reality? A Critical Review of Literature

posted on 11.06.2021, 06:28 by deRoquemaurel A., Wirth T., Vijiaratnam N., Ferreira F., Zrinzo L., Akram H., Foltynie T., Limousin P.
Introduction: While deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been extensively used for more than 20 years in Parkinson’s disease (PD), the optimal area of stimulation to relieve motor symptoms remains elusive. Objective: We aimed at localizing the sweet spot within the subthalamic region by performing a systematic review of the literature. Method: PubMed database was searched for published studies exploring optimal stimulation location for STN DBS in PD, published between 2000 and 2019. A standardized assessment procedure based on methodological features was applied to select high-quality publications. Studies conducted more than 3 months after the DBS procedure, employing lateralized scores and/or stimulation condition, and reporting the volume of tissue activated or the position of the stimulating contact within the subthalamic region were considered in the final analysis. Results: Out of 439 references, 24 were finally retained, including 21 studies based on contact location and 3 studies based on volume of tissue activated (VTA). Most studies (all VTA-based studies and 13 of the 21 contact-based studies) suggest the superior-lateral STN and the adjacent white matter as the optimal sites for stimulation. Remaining contact-based studies were either inconclusive (5/21), favoured the caudal zona incerta (1/21), or suggested a better outcome of STN stimulation than adjacent white matter stimulation (2/21). Conclusion: Using a standardized methodological approach, our review supports the presence of a sweet spot located within the supero-lateral STN and extending to the adjacent white matter.