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Supplementary Material for: Targeting Galectin-1 by Aflibercept Strongly Enhances Its Antitumor Effect in Neuroendocrine Carcinomas

posted on 03.03.2020, 12:40 by Rodríguez-Remírez M., delPuerto-Nevado L., Fernández-Aceñero M.J., Cruz-Ramos M., García-García L., Solanes S., Molina-Roldán E., García-Foncillas J., Cebrián A.
Background: Galectin-1 (Gal-1) plays major roles in cancer by modulating different processes leading to tumor development and progression. In the last years, it has been suggested as a promising target for anticancer therapy. Recently, aflibercept has shown high affinity for Gal-1. Here, we investigated how aflibercept could exert its antitumor activity via Gal-1-driven pathways in neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). Methods and Results: NEC tumor xenografts were used to assess the effect of aflibercept on Gal-1 functions. Aflibercept induced a significant reduction of Gal-1 at epithelial, stromal, and extracellular localizations in lung NEC, whereas this was not observed in colon NECs, which displayed low expression of Gal-1. Additionally, aflibercept significantly reduced p-VEGFR2 protein, extracellular matrix remodeling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and activation of cancer-associated fibroblast hampering cell invasion in lung NEC but not in colon NEC. Gal-1 screening in human NECs confirmed that pulmonary and pancreatic tumors displayed higher levels of Gal-1 than colon NECs, becoming good candidates to benefit from aflibercept treatment. Conclusions: The lack of validated predictive markers of aflibercept is a weakness for guaranteeing the best treatment management with this drug. This work provides new mechanistic insight of aflibercept depending on Gal-1. Thus, in tumors overexpressing Gal-1, aflibercept has not only an antiangiogenic effect but also prevents Gal-1-mediated tumor-stroma cross talk. The stronger aflibercept effect in tumors with high levels of Gal-1 points out this protein as a molecular marker to predict the efficacy of this agent not only for NECs but also for other tumors with high levels of this protein.