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Supplementary Material for: The Expression of Preaxial Polydactyly Is Influenced by Modifying Genetic Elements and Is Not Maintained by Chromosomal Inversion in an Avian Biomedical Model

posted on 25.01.2012, 00:00 by Robb E.A., Delany M.E.
Polydactyly (Po) is a common mutation found in many vertebrates. The UCD-Po.003 congenic chicken line was previously characterized for Po inheritance (autosomal dominant) and the mutation was mapped to chromosome 2p. Here, we describe for the first time the range and variability of the phenotype in this congenic line. Further, we studied the hypothesis that a chromosomal inversion was responsible for the maintenance of a large (6.3 Mb) candidate gene region. Fluorescence in situ hybridization employing BACs encompassing a 10.7-Mb region of GGA2p showed that the Po chromosome was normal, i.e. exhibits the wild-type BAC order. Continued fine-mapping along with a change in breeding strategy reduced the size of the causative region to 1.43 Mb. Recent research indicates that the cause of preaxial Po resides within a 794-bp highly conserved zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) element located in intron 5 of the LMBR1 gene; however, the ZRS polymorphism of interest is found in some but not all breeds of polydactylous chicken. Therefore, we sequenced the ZRS in 101 heterozygous and 30 unaffected (wild-type) individuals to establish the relevance of this region to the Po condition in the UCD-Po.003 congenic line. A single point mutation (C/A at coordinate GGA2p: 8,414,121) within the ZRS segregated with carrier status. The polydactylous UCD-Silkie line also maintains this SNP in addition to a single base deletion. An inheritance analysis of the phenotypic variation in UCD-Po.003 suggests recessive epistasis as the mode of inheritance for the additional modifying genetic elements, residing outside the ZRS, to impact the preaxial polydactyl phenotype. These results contribute to our understanding of the cause of Po in an important vertebrate model.