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Supplementary Material for: The Lipopolysaccharide Mutant Re-LPS Is a Useful Tool for Detecting LPS Contamination in Rheumatoid Synovial Cell Cultures

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posted on 19.11.2021, 12:12 by Kohno H., Ouhara K., Mokuda S., Tokunaga T., Sugimoto T., Watanabe H., Ishitoku M., Yoshida Y., Mizuno N., Ozawa T., Kawataka M., Hirata S., Kishi H., Sugiyama E.
Introduction: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination of commercially available proteins has seriously impeded research on citrullinated fibrinogen (cit-Fb) in rheumatoid synovial cells (RSCs). Methods: RSCs obtained from 4 rheumatoid arthritis patients who underwent full knee arthroplasty were cultured, stimulated with cit-Fb, and cytokine expression levels were measured. We then evaluated polymyxin-B (PMB), heat inactivation, and rough (R)-type LPS mutants for rapid detection of LPS contamination. Results: cit-Fb induced expression of CXCL10 and IFNB in RSCs via the toll-like receptor. PMB inhibited cit-Fb-mediated CXCL10 gene expression but not protein expression induced by 20 μg/mL cit-Fb. Heat inactivation did not affect LPS-mediated CXCL10 or IL-6 induction; however, cit-Fb-mediated CXCL10expression was inhibited. Wild-type LPS from Escherichia coli (WT-LPS) strongly induces CXCL10 expression, but induction by Ra-LPS was weak, and induction by Rc- and Re-LPS was minimal. Re-LPS suppression of WT-LPS-mediated CXCL10 induction in RSCs and peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) was dose dependent. Furthermore, Re-LPS completely suppressed cit-Fb-mediated CXCL10 induction in RSCs and PBMs. Conclusion: To easily identify LPS contamination during routine experiments, our results suggest that Re-LPS is a better tool for rapid detection of LPS contamination compared to PMB and heat treatment.