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Supplementary Material for: The Prevalence of Atopic Manifestations in 313 Iranian Patients with Inborn Errors of Immunity

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posted on 31.05.2021, 04:42 by Ghaini M., Jamee M., Mahdaviani S.A., Mesdaghi M., Eskandarzadeh S., Rae W., Eslami N., Eslamian G., Mansouri M., Babaei D., Enayat J., Emami H., Doustkhah S., HosseiniAbajalou M., Rekabi M., Chavoshzadeh Z.
Introduction: Inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) are rare inherited disorders with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Here, we aimed to delineate the atopy burden in a cohort of patients with IEIs. Methods: 313 patients with IEIs were enrolled in the study within a 9-years period, and data were collected via a questionnaire. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (v. 25.0, Chicago, IL, USA). The statistical significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: Overall, 51 out of 313 (16.3%) patients were identified to have atopic manifestations. Food allergy was detected in 34 (10.2%), atopic dermatitis in 21 (6.7%), as well as allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis each in 4 (1.3%) patients. The allergic disorders were reported as initial manifestations among 14 out of 35 (40.0%) atopic patients. Most of these 51 patients fell within the category of combined immunodeficiency (CID) (n = 38, 74.5%), followed by, severe CID (SCID) (n = 5, 9.8%), common variable immunodeficiency (n = 3, 5.9%), chronic granulomatous disease (n = 3, 5.9%), selective IgA deficiency (n = 1, 2.0%), and leukocyte adhesion defect (n = 1, 2.0%). No patient with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacteria was found to have atopic manifestation. Atopic dermatitis (p = 0.001) and food allergy (p < 0.001) were both significantly higher in patients with CID than in other IEI groups. Among atopic patients with CID and SCID, food allergy and atopic dermatitis were the most prevalent comorbidities. Discussion/Conclusion: Atopic diseases may contribute to the clinical picture of IEIs, particularly in patients with CID. Atopy in association with other warning signs of IEIs increases the possibility of an underlying IEI.