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Supplementary Material for: The Prognostic Impact of Tumor Differentiation on Recurrence and Survival after Resection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Is Dependent on Tumor Size

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posted on 24.08.2021, 03:56 by Shinkawa H., Tanaka S., Kabata D., Takemura S., Amano R., Kimura K., Kinoshita M., Kubo S.
Introduction: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of poor differentiation and tumor size on survival outcome after hepatic resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: A total of 1,107 patients who underwent initial and curative hepatic resection for HCC without macroscopic vascular invasion participated in the study. Using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model, we evaluated changes in hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between tumor differentiation and survival based on tumor size. Results: In patients with poorly (Por) differentiated HCCs, the adjusted HRs of reduced overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), early RFS, and early extrahepatic RFS were 1.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.07–1.59), 1.07 (95% CI 0.89–1.28), 1.31 (95% CI 1.06–1.62), and 1.81 (95% CI 1.03–3.17), respectively. Moreover, based on an analysis of the effect modification of tumor differentiation according to tumor size, Por HCC was found to be associated with a reduced OS (p = 0.033). The HRs of Por HCCs sharply increased in patients with tumors measuring up to 5 cm. The adjusted HRs of reduced OS in patients with Por HCCs measuring <2, ≥2 and <5, and ≥5 cm were 1.22 (95% CI 0.69–2.14), 1.33 (95% CI 1.02–1.73), and 1.58 (95% CI 1.04–2.42), respectively. The corresponding adjusted HRs of reduced early RFS were 0.85 (95% CI 0.46–1.57), 1.34 (95% CI 1.01–1.8), and 1.57 (95% CI 1.03–2.39), respectively. The adjusted HRs of reduced early extrahepatic RFS were 1.89 (95% CI 0.83–4.3) in patients with tumors measuring ≥2 and <5 cm and 2.33 (95% CI 0.98–5.54) in those with tumors measuring ≥5 cm. Conclusions: Por HCC measuring ≥2 cm was associated with early recurrence. Hence, it had negative effects on OS. After surgery, patients with Por HCC measuring ≥5 cm should be cautiously monitored for early extrahepatic recurrence. These findings will help physicians devise treatment strategies for patients with HCC.