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Supplementary Material for: The Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes Associated with Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with COVID-19: Data from a Large Cohort in Iran

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posted on 27.07.2021, 12:13 by Rahimzadeh H., Kazemian S., Rahbar M., Farrokhpour H., Montazeri M., Kafan S., Salimzadeh A., Talebpour M., Majidi F., Jannatalipour A., Razeghi E.
Introduction: Kidney involvement, ranging from mild hematuria and proteinuria to acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), is a recent finding with various incidence rates reported among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Given the various AKI rates and their associated risk factors, lack of AKI recovery in the majority of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, and limited data regarding AKI in patients with COVID-19 in Iran, we aim to investigate the potential risk factors for AKI development and its incidence in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled adult patients referred to the Sina Hospital, Iran, from February 20 to May 14, 2020, with either a positive PCR test or a highly susceptible chest computed tomography features consistent with COVID-19 diagnosis. AKI was defined according to the kidney disease improving global outcomes criteria, and patients were stratified based on their AKI staging. We evaluated the risk indicators associated with AKI during hospitalization besides in-hospital outcomes and recovery rate at the time of discharge. Results: We evaluated 516 patients with a mean age of 57.6 ± 16.1 years and a male-to-female ratio of 1.69 who were admitted with the COVID-19 diagnosis. AKI development was observed among 194 (37.6%) patients, comprising 61.9% patients in stage 1, 18.0% in stage 2, and 20.1% in stage 3. Out of all patients, AKI occurred in 58 (11.2%) patients during the hospital course, and 136 (26.3%) patients arrived with AKI upon admission. AKI development was positively associated with all of the in-hospital outcomes, including intensive care unit admissions, need for invasive ventilation, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute cardiac injury, acute liver injury, multiorgan damage, and mortality. Patients with stage 3 AKI showed a significantly higher mortality rate, ARDS, and need for invasive ventilation than other stages. After multivariable analysis, male sex (odds ratio [OR]: 11.27), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR: 6.89), history of hypertension (OR: 1.69), disease severity (OR: 2.27), and high urea levels (OR: 1.04) on admission were independent risk indicators of AKI development. Among 117 (28.1%) patients who experienced AKI and survived, only 33 (28.2%) patients made a recovery from the AKI, and 84 (71.8%) patients did not exhibit full recovery at the time of discharge. Discussion/Conclusion: We found that male sex, history of CKD, hypertension, disease severity, and high serum urea were independent risk factors associated with AKI in patients with COVID-19. Also, higher stages of AKI were associated with increased risk of mortality and in-hospital complications. Our results indicate a necessity for more precise care and monitoring for AKI during hospitalization in patients with COVID-19, and lack of AKI recovery at the time of discharge is a common complication in such patients.