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Supplementary Material for: The Spectrum of Genetic Variants Associated with the Development of Monogenic Obesity in Qatar

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posted on 13.01.2022, 11:16 by AbouHashem N., Zaied R.E., Al-Shafai K., Nofal M., Syed N., Al-Shafai M.
Introduction: Monogenic obesity (MO) is a rare genetic disease characterized by severe early-onset obesity in affected individuals. Previous genetic studies revealed 8 definitive genes for monogenic non-syndromic obesity; many were discovered in consanguineous populations. Here, we examined MO in the Qatari population, whose population is largely consanguineous (54%) and characterized by extensive obesity (45%). Methods: Whole genome sequences of Qatar Biobank samples from 250 subjects with obesity and 250 subjects with normal weight, obtained in association with the Qatar Genome Programme, were searched for genetic variants in the genes known to be associated with MO (i.e., LEP, LEPR, POMC, PCSK1, MC3R, MC4R, MRAP2 and ADCY3). The impact of the variants identified was investigated utilizing in silico tools for prediction in combination with protein visualization by PyMOL. Results: We identified potential MO variants in more than 5% of the cases in our cohort. We revealed 11 rare variants in 6 of the genes targeted, including two disease-causing variants in MC4R and MRAP2, all of which were heterozygous. Moreover, enrichment of a heterozygous ADCY3 variant (c.1658C>T; p.A553V) appeared to cause severe obesity in an autosomal dominant manner. Conclusion: These findings highlight the importance of implementing routine testing for genetic variants that predispose for MO in Qatar. Clearly, additional studies of this nature on populations not yet examined are required. At the same time, functional investigations, both in vitro and in vivo, are necessary in order to better understand the role of the variants identified in the pathogenesis of obesity.

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