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Supplementary Material for: Transmission Disequilibrium Tests Based on Read Counts for Low-Coverage Next-Generation Sequence Data

posted on 12.08.2015, 00:00 by Kim W.
The purpose of this paper is the introduction of new statistical methods for case-parent trio association studies based on the read counts that can be obtained from next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments. This work focuses on the inclusion of low-coverage data into the case-parent trio design without genotype classification or imputation. Two different approaches are considered: (1) a likelihood-based approach implementing a 15-component parametric mixture model and (2) a model-free approach that applies non-parametric statistical methods to the ratios of the read counts to coverage. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the performances of the proposed tests. In addition, the non-centrality parameters of the mixture likelihood-based tests are derived to determine sample sizes and coverage for a NGS experimental design. As an example, the sample sizes to maintain specified powers of a published adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) study are presented. The simulation results show that the tests using the genotypes classified by the maximum Bayesian posterior probability have significantly inflated type I error rates for low-coverage data. The tests using the posterior probabilities instead of the classified genotypes show lower power than the proposed tests. Generally, power for the likelihood-based approach is higher than that for the non-parametric ratio-based approach. For the AIS example, approximately 654 trios with 4× coverage are necessary to maintain 90% power when detecting an association of odds ratio 2 at a locus with a minor allele frequency of 0.35 at the level of significance α = 5 × 10-8. By comparison, approximately 416 trios with 25× coverage are required to maintain the same power with the same settings. The R and C source codes to calculate the proposed test statistics, the sample sizes and power can be obtained by contacting the author (wkim@cau.ac.kr).