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Supplementary Material for: Truncated RUNX1 Generated by the Fusion of RUNX1 to Antisense GRIK2 via a Cryptic Chromosome Translocation Enhances Sensitivity to Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor

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posted on 22.06.2020 by Abe A., Yamamoto Y., Katsumi A, Yamamoto H., Okamoto A., Inaguma Y., Iriyama C., Tokuda M, Okamoto M., Emi N., Tomita A
Fusions of the Runt-related transcription factor 1 ( RUNX1 ) with different partner genes have been associated with various hematological disorders. Interestingly, the C-terminally truncated form of RUNX1 and RUNX1 fusion proteins are similarly considered important contributors to leukemogenesis. Here, we describe a 59-year-old male patient who was initially diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia, inv(16)(p13;q22)/ CBFB-MYH11 (FAB classification M4Eo). He achieved complete remission and negative CBFB-MYH11 status with daunorubicin/cytarabine combination chemotherapy but relapsed 3 years later. Cytogenetic analysis of relapsed leukemia cells revealed CBFB-MYH11 negativity and complex chromosomal abnormalities without inv(16) (p13;q22). RNA-seq identified the glutamate receptor, ionotropic, kinase 2 ( GRIK2) gene on 6q16 as a novel fusion partner for RUNX1 in this case. Specifically, the fusion of RUNX1 to the GRIK2 antisense strand ( RUNX1-GRIK2as) generated multiple missplicing transcripts. Because extremely low levels of wild-type GRIK2 were detected in leukemia cells,
RUNX1-GRIK2as was thought to drive the pathogenesis associated with the RUNX1-GRIK2 fusion. The truncated RUNX1 generated from RUNX1-GRIK2as induced the expression of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor on 32D myeloid leukemia cells and enhanced proliferation in response to G-CSF. In summary, the RUNX1-GRIK2as fusion emphasizes the importance of aberrantly truncated RUNX1 in leukemogenesis.