Supplementary Material for: Usefulness of Stress Echocardiography in Assessment of Dynamic Left Ventricular Obstructions: Case Series and Review of the Literature
datasetposted on 18.05.2021, 14:54 by Saeed S., Vegsundvåg J.
Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (DLVOTO) or midcavity obstruction in patients with structurally normal hearts is not uncommon in routine clinical practice and can cause significant symptoms mimicking coronary artery disease or heart failure. Although exercise echocardiography is the gold standard for assessing DLVOTO, dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) may be valuable diagnostic modality in patients who are unable to exercise or have an uninterpretable 12-lead electrocardiogram. We provide an updated overview of the relevant literature regarding prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical significance, and prognostic impact of DLVOTO and midcavity obstruction in structurally normal hearts. We also present a clinical series of 4 cases of DLVOTO and midcavity obstruction documented by DSE and discuss the value of different kinds of modern stress imaging modalities involving: (1) contrast-enhanced DSE to assess myocardial perfusion and inducible ischemia; (2) adenosine stress echocardiography to assess coronary flow reserve/microvascular dysfunction; and (3) functional imaging with deformation echocardiography to assess subclinical myocardial dysfunction in patients with structurally normal heart and without significant coronary disease. Based upon our own experiences and a critical review of the current literature, we will then present a practical guidance for management of DLVOTO and midcavity obstruction.