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Supplementary Material for: What Shall We Do for the Patients with Shaky Leg Syndrome? A Review of 23 Patients

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posted on 10.09.2020, 08:50 by Park S., Lim J.G., Chang H.J., Oh E.
Orthostatic tremor (OT) is not an uncommon symptom in various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the nature and pathophysiology of OT involve a complex network of tremors and dopaminergic pathways. We assessed patients who complained of prominent leg tremors described as “shaky leg.” We analyzed their characteristics and evaluated them with neuroimaging and electrophysiological tools. A total of 23 patients who experienced an uncomfortable symptom of leg tremor were retrospectively enrolled from April 2014 to October 2019. Previous medical history, brain MRI, and surface electromyography (EMG) data were analyzed. The [18F]-FP-CIT brain positron emission tomography (PET) and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were assessed for patients who showed parkinsonism. The causes of OT varied: parkinsonism (n = 5), idiopathic causes (n = 4), secondary causes (n = 3, trauma, brain lesion, arteriovenous malformation), drug reactions (n = 3, valproate, perphenazine, haloperidol), other neurological disorders (n = 5, essential tremor, dystonia, restless leg syndrome, REM sleep behavior disorder, dementia), alcohol withdrawal (n = 1), functional movement disorder (n = 1), and an unknown cause (n = 1). The frequency range varied (2.6–15 Hz) and according to the new consensus statement on the classification of OT, 4 patients had primary OT, 2 had “primary OT plus,” 12 had slow OT, and 5 had orthostatic myoclonus. The prognosis associated with the use of medication was generally poor; however, clonazepam and levodopa were the most effective drugs. In conclusion, we found that different types of OT and orthostatic myoclonus were diagnosed by electrophysiological evaluation and neuroimaging tools even if they showed the same symptoms as “shaky leg.” In addition, it is possible to roughly estimate the response to medication according to the type of OT and the cause. To clarify the pathophysiology of OT, a large number of longitudinal cohort studies and detailed neuroimaging and electrophysiological evaluations are needed.

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