Supplement Material for: Improved β2-Microglobulin and Phosphorous Removal with Expanded Hemodialysis and Online Hemodiafiltration versus High-Flux Hemodialysis: A Cross-Over Randomized Clinical Trial
Introduction: Expanded hemodialysis (HDx) is expected to provide enhanced permeability of medium-sized molecules, selective solute retention, and better internal retrofiltration. The primary objective of this study was to compare the efficiency for removal of β2-microglobulin with 3 different extracorporeal therapies (ETs): high-flux hemodialysis (HF), online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF), and HDx. The secondary objective was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of other uremic toxins, including urea, phosphate, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-⍺, indoxyl sulfate, and p-cresol. Methods: This single-center, randomized, and cross-over study was performed. Patients were randomized to determine the initial modality of treatment, each period lasted 4 weeks and between one modality and another, there was a washout period of 1 week. Reduction ratios (RRs) of different-size molecules and albumin were calculated for the different ET. Results: Twenty-two patients were included, β2-microglobulin RR was greater during both OL-HDF and HDx as compared to HF (RR 62% vs. 73% vs. 27%, respectively, p = <0.0001), and there was no significant difference between HDx and OL-HDF (p = 0.09). A decrease in serum phosphate levels was observed in the HDx and OL-HDF periods, contrary to an increase in HF (−0.79 mg/dL vs. −1.02 mg/dL vs. + 0.11 mg/dL, respectively, p = <0.0001). There was no difference in RRs of other molecules (BUN, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-⍺, indoxyl sulfate, and p-Cresol). There was no decrease in serum albumin in any ET. Conclusion: HDx provides enhanced removal of β2-microglobulin and phosphate as compared to HF, and similar efficacy as with OL-HDF. HDx should be considered an alternative to chronic convective therapies.