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Supplementary Material for: Immunoregulation of Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation by Endothelial-Derived p33 (gC1q Receptor)

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posted on 16.10.2017, 10:02 by Neumann A., Papareddy P., Westman J., Hyldegaard O., Snäll J., Norrby-Teglund A., Herwald H.
The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a host defence mechanism, known to facilitate the entrapment and growth inhibition of many bacterial pathogens. It has been implicated that the translocation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) from neutrophilic granules to the nucleus is crucial to this process. Under disease conditions, however, excessive NET formation can trigger self-destructive complications by releasing pathologic levels of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs). To counteract such devastating immune reactions, the host has to rely on precautions that help circumvent these deleterious effects. Though the induction of DAMP responses has been intensively studied, the mechanisms that are used by the host to down-regulate them are still not understood. In this study, we show that p33 is an endothelial-derived protein that has the ability to annul NET formation. We found that the expression of human p33 is up-regulated in endothelial cells upon infections with Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria. Using tissue biopsies from a patient with streptococcal necrotising fasciitis, we monitored co-localisation of p33 with MPO. Further in vitro studies revealed that p33 is able to block the formation of DAMP-induced NET formation by inhibiting the enzymatic activity of MPO. Additionally, mice challenged with S. pyogenes bacteria demonstrated diminished MPO activity when treated with p33. Together, our results demonstrate that host-derived p33 has an important immunomodulating function that helps to counterbalance an overwhelming DAMP response.