Supplementary Material for: Association of Serum Potassium with All-Cause Mortality in Patients with and without Heart Failure, Chronic Kidney Disease, and/or Diabetes
journal contributionposted on 01.09.2017 by Collins A.J., Pitt B., Reaven N., Funk S., McGaughey K., Wilson D., Bushinsky D.A.
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Background: The relationship between serum potassium, mortality, and conditions commonly associated with dyskalemias, such as heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) is largely unknown. Methods: We reviewed electronic medical record data from a geographically diverse population (n = 911,698) receiving medical care, determined the distribution of serum potassium, and the relationship between an index potassium value and mortality over an 18-month period in those with and without HF, CKD, and/or DM. We examined the association between all-cause mortality and potassium using a cubic spline regression analysis in the total population, a control group, and in HF, CKD, DM, and a combined cohort. Results: 27.6% had a potassium <4.0 mEq/L, and 5.7% had a value ≥5.0 mEq/L. A U-shaped association was noted between serum potassium and mortality in all groups, with lowest all-cause mortality in controls with potassium values between 4.0 and <5.0 mEq/L. All-cause mortality rates per index potassium between 2.5 and 8.0 mEq/L were consistently greater with HF 22%, CKD 16.6%, and DM 6.6% vs. controls 1.2%, and highest in the combined cohort 29.7%. Higher mortality rates were noted in those aged ≥65 vs. 50-64 years. In an adjusted model, all-cause mortality was significantly elevated for every 0.1 mEq/L change in potassium <4.0 mEq/L and ≥5.0 mEq/L. Diuretics and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors were related to hypokalemia and hyperkalemia respectively. Conclusion: Mortality risk progressively increased with dyskalemia and was differentially greater in those with HF, CKD, or DM.