Supplementary Material for: Optimal Medical Management Reduces Risk of Disease Progression and Ischemic Events in Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Patients: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study
Background and Purpose: To assess the effect of optimal medical management including atherosclerotic risk factor control on ischemic stroke (IS), transient ischemic attack (TIA), carotid revascularization (CRV), and progression of severity of carotid stenosis (PSCS) in patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS). Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with ACAS (who had at least 3 serial carotid duplex ultrasounds) for incidence of IS, TIA, and PSCS. Results: Eight hundred sixty-four patients with a mean follow-up duration of 79 ± 36 months were included. IS/TIA and CRV occurred in 12.2% of the patients and PCSS was observed in 21.5% vessels. On univariate analysis it was found that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels >100 mg/dL, no statin or low-potency statins, average systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg and history of smoking were predictors of the combined endpoint of IS/TIA/CRV and PSCS. On multivariate analysis, it was found that LDL >100 mg/dL, no statin or low-potency statin, SBP ≥140 mm Hg and/or DBP ≥90 mm Hg, and Hx of smoking were independent predictors of PSCS. Similarly no statin or low-potency statin, SBP ≥140 mm Hg and/or DBP ≥90 mm Hg, Hx of atrial fibrillation/flutter, Hx of chronic kidney disease, and PSCS were independent predictors of IS/TIA. No statin or low-potency statin, SBP ≥140 mm Hg and/or DBP ≥90 mm Hg, diabetes mellitus, baseline carotid artery stenosis ≥70%, and PSCS were found to be independent predictors of combined endpoint IS/TIA and CRV. Conclusion: Intensive medical therapy in the patients with ACAS results in lower incidence of IS/TIA, CRV, and PSCS with a significant incremental beneficial effect.