Supplementary Material for: Effects of Music Intervention on the Physical and Mental Status of Patients with Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background: The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of music intervention on the physical and mental status of patients with breast cancer. Methods: 9 databases were searched; 30 randomized controlled trials that compared the effects of music plus standard care and standard care alone in patients with breast cancer were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Results: The results of the metaanalysis suggested that music intervention was significantly effective in lowering systolic blood pressure (standardized mean difference (SMD) –0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) –0.85 to –0.42; p < 0.00001), diastolic blood pressure (SMD –0.64, 95% CI –1.06 to –0.22; p = 0.003), and heart rate (SMD –0.45, 95% CI –0.66 to –0.24; p < 0.0001), and in relieving anxiety (Hamilton Scale: mean difference (MD) –7.04, 95% CI –9.31 to –4.78; p < 0.00001; Self-Rating Anxiety Scale: MD –7.40, 95% CI –10.28 to –4.52; p < 0.00001; State Anxiety Inventory: MD –12.40, 95% CI –21.86 to –2.94; p = 0.01), and depression (MD –7.39, 95% CI –8.35 to –6.43; p < 0.00001). Conclusion: This review provides clues that music intervention might partially improve the physiological and psychological health of patients with breast cancer.